Bachelor's thesis Javier Perez Vera
Development of a calculation model for the generation of electrical load profiles for non-residential buildingsCopyright: EBC
The goal of a climate-neutral building stock set by the German government for the year 2050, has wide-ranging impacts on the present and future energy supply. Non-residential buildings account for 37% of the end energy consumption of German buildings and thus constitute a major energy saving potential. Due to the expansion of renewable energies, concepts such as demand-side-management, smart grids and distributed generation are gaining in importance. The estimation of end user energy consumption is essential for the planning and implementation of those technologies. Annual consumption is frequently known but the temporal resolution is rarely given in practice. Therefore, a calculation model that generates electrical load profiles for non-residential buildings is developed in this thesis.
The objective of this thesis is to analyze the factors that contribute to the energy consumption of buildings and to develope a user-friendly model that only requires a small number of input variables. To this end, a bottom-up approach is chosen, while the focus is on user electricity. Since non-residential buildings are an inhomogeneous group regarding the usage and the consequent power demand, it is necessary to analyze each category separately. Thus, the calculation model developed in this thesis is focussed on the office building category.
The designed program uses occupancy profiles and assumptions concerning user behaviour in order to model the usage of electrical appliances. In this way the individuality of end user activities and the resultant variations of user electricity are taken into account. Concerning the appliance equipment in office buildings, computers and lighting were identified as the appliances with the highest impact on load shape and annual consumption.
The results show that the model is capable of representing the characteristics of the user power consumption in office buildings. To this end, the calculation model is validated based on measured electricity loads. The degree of accuracy varies depending on the building while the overall shape of the power consumption is adequately represented. The estimation of absolute power values offers potential for improvement. The model allows the generation of characteristic load profiles for office buildings with little time and data requirements, providing a calculation model that is transferable to further non-residential building categories.