New Energy Concepts for the Shopping Center of the Future (EffShop)
New Energy Concepts for the Shopping Centers of the Future (EffShop)Copyright: EBC
In the past, only little attention was given to the energy consumption of shopping centers compared to other energyconsuming sectors. Because of the high energy consumption and the ever-increasing number of shopping centers, analyses of the actual energy consumption and development of sustainable energy concepts for this kind of buildings are urgently needed. The aim of this ongoing project, which is carried out with the cooperation of the IEK of Leibniz University Hannover, is the development of sustainable energy concepts including the use of renewable energy to reduce the energy demand of shopping centers. Existing shopping centers are monitored to collect the required data. Through systematic analyses of the plant concepts and the characteristic energy consumption values, a survey of current energy demand structures in shopping centers is extracted. Plants using environmental energy like in free cooling mode or near-surface geothermal energy are investigated with regard to the fulfillment of the planned requirement satisfaction.
Since the minimum air requirement for the places of sale is currently based on the cooling load and not on the minimum hygienic air flow rate. In this project a minimum air flow rate for shopping centers will be proposed. The air quality study of some shopping centers by use of a human panel will be carried out and the impact of reducing air flow rate on the air quality in shopping centers will also be investigated. Dilution characteristics are recorded for different sales products with special attention on intensively smelling goods like perfumery, leather goods or textile products.
The high energy demand in shopping centers is mainly due to the high heat input by lighting systems and the necessary air volume flow rate for removing the heat loads via air handling units. As the real fresh air demand is expected to be found lower by air quality experiments than the demand of air flow to remove the heat loads, alternative methods are to be found to remove the heat loads. Thus, air-water-systems will be used, in particular active chilled beams with an additional heat exchanger in the ceiling. Current active chilled beams concepts have to be optimized in order to allow the use of water with comparably high temperatures in combination with the application of near-surface geothermal energy.
Overall Concept Analyses
Dynamic plant simulations in combination with building simulations are performed. The building physics, the heating system and the air handling system are simulated simultaneously in coupled and time-resolved manner. With this dynamic approach, the energy demand is calculated relatively fast for the period of a whole year. From the analyzed control strategies, the collected monitor data, the coupled building and plant simulations for geothermal applications, optimal energy supply concepts for future shopping centers are derived.
Grateful acknowledgement is made for financial support by BMWi (German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology), promotional reference 03ET1092B.